Ingredients of the hemp plant
Hemp seeds and hemp oil
Both ripe hemp seeds and hemp seed meal as well as hemp oil are useful sources of oils and fatty acids, proteins and amino acids as well as fibers and roughage. Hemp seeds have been an important food source in many cultures for millennia. Hemp seeds typically contain over 30% oil and around 25% protein, with significant amounts of fiber, vitamins and minerals.
Hemp oil contains over 80% polyunsaturated fatty acids and is an exceptionally rich source of the two essential fatty acids linoleic acid (18: 2 omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18: 3 omega-3). The ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 in hemp oil is usually around 1: 3, which is considered optimal for human health. In addition, the two essential fatty acids, gamma-linolenic acid (18: 3 omega-6) and stearidonic acid (18: 4 omega-3), are also present in hemp oil.
The two main proteins in hemp seeds are edestin and albumin. These two high-quality storage proteins are easy to digest and contain nutritionally significant amounts of all essential amino acids.
Hemp leaves and hemp flowers
The leaves and flowers of the hemp plant can contain a variety of cannabinoids, including THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), CBD (cannabidiol), CBG (cannabigerol), CBC (cannabichromene), CBN (cannabinol ) and their acids. Cannabinoids are used in higher doses for medicinal purposes. In low doses some of them can improve the quality of life of the users according to various reports, especially CBD.
In addition, more than 100 terpenes (essential oils), such as limonene, pinene, myrcene and beta-caryophyllene, which are responsible for the smell of the plants, have been discovered in cannabis plants. They are not only used as odor and taste substances, but also have some pharmacologically interesting effects in some cases. For example, it contains lime, which is also found in citrus fruits and is largely responsible for their smell and slight mood-enhancing effects.
The more than 20 flavonoids in the hemp plant include apigenin, luteolin, quercitin and kaempferol. Flavonoids are secondary plant substances that can have antioxidant and other health-promoting properties. Phytonutrients are not vitamins, but nutritionists recommend that they get enough food.